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How to Construct Data Tables and Graph Your Data Proper Methods for Basic Lab Skills Types of Variables • Controlled Variable ▫ These are constant through any trials done in an experiment. • Manipulated Variable ▫ This is the variable that the experiment changes in order to get a result ▫ This variable will ALWAYS go on the x-axis when graphing • Responding Variable ▫ This is the variable that is measured. It is the response to the change in the manipulated variable ▫ This variable will ALWAYS go on the y-axis when graphing On your white boards, please construct a data table to record data about the time (in seconds) a marble takes to fall a given height (in cm – measured with a meter stick). You do NOT need to record data, just set up your table with the relevant information. Basic Components of Data Tables Title & # → Table 1: Time a Marble Takes to Fall from a Given Height ↓ Column Headings ↓ Absolute → Uncertainty Height (± 0.05 cm) Time (± 0.05 s) ←Units! Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 10.00 0.14 0.11 0.13 20.00 0.23 0.26 0.25 30.00 0.47 0.50 0.49 40.00 1.00 0.95 0.98 50.00 1.62 1.63 1.63 60.00 2.05 2.03 2.04 ↑ No Calculations (Decimals Aligned!) (Not even averages) ↑ Trials On your white boards, please construct a graph that depicts the Displacement (in meters) a bike travels in a given time (in seconds). You do NOT need to graph points, just set up your graph. Basic Components of Graphs Displacement (m) Title & # → Graph 1: The Displacement a Bicycle Travels With Time ↑ Label Each Axis! → A note on uncertainties: If you measured this quantity, include them If you calculated this quantity, don’t include them Time (s) Now plot the following data on your graph and draw a proper line for the data set. Table 1: The Displacement a Bicycle Travels With Time Time (s) Displacement (m) 10 40 25 90 40 70 50 130 65 75 80 160 85 140 95 210 Graphing Data Displacement (m) Graph 1: The Displacement a Bicycle Travels With Time Clear Data Points ← Best Fit Line/Curve! Scales! ↑ → Time (s) Types of Graphs: Linear Types of Graphs: Quadratic Types of Graphs: Exponential Calculating the Slope Displacement (m) Graph 1: The Displacement a Bicycle Travels With Time Point 2: (40,80) Point 1: (12,40) Time (s) 80 − 40 m 40m 𝑆𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 = = = 1.5 m s 40 − 12 s 28s Rise Slope Run y y2 y1 Slope x x2 x1 Writing an Equation for Your Line Graph 1: The Displacement a Bicycle Travels With Time Displacement (m) y→d 𝒅 = 𝟏. 𝟓 𝐦 𝐬 𝒕 + 𝟑𝟎𝐦 𝒚 = 𝒎𝒙 + 𝒃 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 = 𝟏. 𝟓 𝐦 Intercept: (0,30) Time (s) x→t 𝒅 = 𝒎𝒕 + 𝒃 𝐬 𝒅 = 𝒎𝒕 + 𝟑𝟎𝐦 On Formal Lab Reports • EVERYTHING needs to be computer processed: ▫ Graphs (LoggerPro inserted into Word) ▫ Tables (Word, Excel) ▫ Equations (Word Equations, Microsoft Equations, Open Office Equations)